Probably Present: High confidence species occurs in park but current, verified evidence needed. Unconfirmed: Species is attributed to park but evidence is weak or absent. Adjacent: Species is known to occur in areas near to or contiguous with park boundaries. False Report: Species was reported to occur within the park, but current evidence indicates the report was based on misidentification, a taxonomic concept no longer accepted, or other similar problem of error or interpretation.
Historical: Species' historical occurrence in park is documented. Assigned based on judgment as opposed to determination based on age of the most recent evidence. Non-native: Species occurs on park lands as a result of deliberate or accidental human activities. The Checklist contains only those species that are designated as "present" or "probably present" in the park. The Full List includes all the checklist species in addition to species that are unconfirmed, historically detected, or incorrectly reported as being found in the park.
The full list also contains species that are "in review" because their status in the park hasn't been fully determined. Additional details about the status of each species is included in the full list. Species attribute definitions. Visit NPSpecies for more comprehensive information and advanced search capability. Have a suggestion or comment on this list? Let us know. Explore This Park. North Cascades National Park Washington.
Unconfirmed Reports of Giant, 1 Kilometer, Methane Crater Found in Siberia
Info Alerts Maps Calendar Reserve. Carefully controlled epidemiologic studies consistently have not found any association between SIDS and vaccines Only one death was believed to have resulted from a vaccine. A similar conclusion was reached regarding neonatal deaths temporally reported to VAERS in association with hepatitis B vaccination CDC reported this finding in July and recommended that health-care providers postpone use of RRV-TV at least until November , pending results of a national case-control study that was being conducted at that time The manufacturer, in consultation with FDA, voluntarily ceased further distribution of the vaccine in mid-July On October 22, after a review of scientific data from multiple sources, ACIP concluded that intussusception occurred with substantially increased frequency in the first weeks after vaccination with RRV-TV, particularly after the first dose.
The first intussusception case was reported in December During the first half of , a total of 14 additional cases of intussusception were reported to VAERS. Other studies have documented similar findings The number of reports increased from 23 during to 40 during and to 80 during Figure 5. For the two seasons combined, the adjusted relative risk of 1. This risk is less than the risk from severe influenza, which can be prevented by the vaccine. This example indicates that VAERS is useful in preliminary evaluation of rare adverse events when the relation to vaccination is uncertain.
Shortly thereafter, a second DTaP formulation was also licensed Both DTaP vaccines were licensed for use only as the fourth and fifth doses of the DTP series recommended for children aged 15 months years. Although reduction in adverse reporting rates is suggestive of a safer vaccine, such comparisons must be interpreted cautiously because reporting rates cannot be viewed as incidence rates.
Two studies have documented an improved safety profile of DTaP vaccines based on review of VAERS data from among children and among infants 39, The decreasing trends for selected systemic adverse events e. However, an increase in the number of reports concerning injection-site reactions was detected by the end of this surveillance period Figure 8.
The increase is more prominent among the recipients of booster doses of DTaP fourth and fifth dose.
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This finding is consistent with the results of a recent study that documented an increase in the risk of extensive local reactions in recipients of fourth and fifth doses of the DTaP vaccines However, the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis VAPP was estimated to be approximately 1 case per 2. This result is consistent with previously reported data In July , varicella vaccine was recommended by ACIP for all children without contraindications at aged months, for all susceptible children by their thirteenth birthday, and for susceptible adolescents and adults who are at high risk for exposure to varicella In February , ACIP expanded its recommendations for varicella vaccine to promote an expanded use of the vaccine for susceptible children and adults The highest numbers of reports were received soon after licensure Figure As the net distribution of varicella vaccine increased, the number of adverse event reports decreased continuously over the years.
The proportion of reports of serious adverse events was stable over the years range: 3. A detailed review of VAERS reports received during the first 3 years after the licensure of varicella vaccine documented that the majority of reported adverse events for varicella vaccine were minor, and serious events were rare A vaccine etiology for the majority of reported serious events could not be confirmed; further research is needed to clarify whether varicella vaccine played a role. ACIP stated that the vaccine should be considered for persons who reside in areas where Lyme disease is endemic and who have frequent or prolonged exposure to tick-infested habitats Review of early reports to VAERS revealed adverse events that corresponded to Lyme vaccine safety data from the prelicensure trials, including injection-site reactions, transient arthralgia and myalgia within 30 days of vaccination, fever, and flu-like symptoms.
Some of the reported hypersensitivity reactions can be linked to the vaccine on the basis of the specificity of the symptoms, close temporal proximity to vaccination, and the known association of the reactions with other vaccines. For other reported adverse events, causal relations with Lyme disease vaccine have not been established.
No clear patterns in age, sex, time to onset, or vaccine dose have been identified. The onset of symptoms consistent with Lyme disease e.
Urine Testing in Regular Users
Determining whether the facial paralysis was part of the expected background incidence or attributable to the vaccine or to Lyme disease was not possible. A higher proportion of arthritis-related events was reported after the second or third dose compared with all events combined. This higher proportion might be attributable to the increased amount of time available for a vaccine recipient to report an adverse event: 11 months between the second and third doses Because of persistent public concerns, a follow-up study was conducted to further evaluate reports of arthritis after vaccination for Lyme disease.
In 7 of 14 confirmed arthritis cases, a history of concomitant exposure or another medical condition existed, including Lyme disease, that provided a possible explanation for arthritis In early , the manufacturer withdrew the vaccine from the market, citing poor sales. The VAERS data should be interpreted with caution, because they describe events that occurred after vaccination but they do not necessarily imply that the events were caused by vaccination.
VAERS seeks to capture as many clinically important medical events after vaccination as possible, even if the person who reported the event was not certain that the incident was vaccine-related. Temporal association alone does not mean that the vaccine caused the illness or symptoms. The illness or symptoms could have been a coincidence or might have been related to an underlying disease or condition or might have been related to medicines or other products taken concurrently. Multiple factors that likely contributed to this increase include the introduction of new vaccines in the mid- to late s rotavirus vaccine, Lyme disease vaccine, varicella vaccine, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , the increased use of anthrax vaccine by military personnel, and the increase in the number of doses of vaccines administered to both adult and children Table 1.
Review of reports during the initial months of licensed use of a new vaccine cannot only rapidly identify problems not detected during prelicensure evaluation e. VAERS has also been useful in screening for unusual increases in previously reported adverse events e. Investigating changes in reporting rates in VAERS might lead to positive change in vaccine practices. After the licensure of DTaP for the fourth and fifth doses in the vaccination schedule of older children, VAERS data were used to compare reporting rates for specific adverse events after DTaP versus DTP within the first 72 hours after vaccination VAERS has also facilitated the lot-specific safety evaluations, which have periodically been of public concern.
Lot sizes vary substantially. Every lot of vaccine must meet strict criteria for purity, potency, and sterility before it can be released to the public by the manufacturer. FDA medical officers review all reports of death and other serious events, and they also look each week for clusters within the same vaccine lot.
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In addition, FDA medical officers evaluate reporting rates of adverse events by lot, as needed, looking for unexpected patterns. During the 11 years, no lot needed to be recalled on this basis. VAERS is subject to the limitations inherent in any passive surveillance system Among those, underreporting only a fraction of the total number of potentially reportable events occurring after vaccination are reported and differential reporting more serious events and events with shorter onset time after vaccinations are more likely to be reported than minor events are most noticeable Overreporting also occurs because certain reported adverse events might not be caused by vaccines, and some reported conditions do not meet standard diagnostic criteria.
Many reported events, including serious ones, might occur coincidentally after vaccination and are not causally related to vaccination. Other potential reporting biases include increased reporting in the first few years after licensure, increased reporting of events occurring soon after vaccination, and increased reporting after publicity about a particular known or alleged type of adverse event.
Individual reports might contain inaccurate or incomplete information.
Because of all of these reasons as well as the absence of control groups, differentiating causal from coincidental conditions by using VAERS data alone usually is not possible. Other methodologic limitations of VAERS include the fact that it does not provide information regarding background incidence of adverse events in the general population nor does it provide information concerning the total number of doses of vaccine or vaccine combinations actually administered to patients.
The high number of reports and the national coverage increase the possibility of detecting or better understanding adverse events that might occur too rarely to be considered as a signal in prelicensure clinical trials or even in a postmarketing active surveillance program.
The identification of signals by monitoring VAERS data might initiate further investigation of potential problems in vaccine safety or efficacy and subsequent dissemination of safety-related information to the scientific community and the public. VAERS is also used to evaluate the safety of vaccines used in unique populations e.
Studies have been published regarding Japanese encephalitis 56 , Lyme 51 , meningococcal 57 , and yellow fever vaccines 58,59 , among others. To provide a more rigorous setting in which investigators can follow up on signals from VAERS or concerns arising from other sources, the Vaccine Safety Datalink VSD Project, a large-linked database, was established in The strengths of VSD include the documentation of immunizations, the absence of underreporting bias of medical outcomes, and the inclusion in the database of a high number of vaccinated persons who did not have adverse events.
Lower Forms of Life and Other Unconfirmed Reports
Nonetheless, VSD permits the conducting of planned epidemiologic vaccine safety studies as well as, in certain situations, urgent investigations of new hypotheses The centers will develop and disseminate standardized clinical evaluation protocols to clinicians. In addition, the CISA centers will provide referral and consultation services to health-care providers regarding the evaluation of patients who might have had an adverse reaction to vaccination, which will include how to manage the adverse reaction and provide counsel on advisability of continued vaccination.
The CISA centers will undertake outreach and educational interventions in the area of vaccination safety.
The objectives of CISA are to enhance understanding of known serious or unusual vaccine reactions, including the pathophysiology and risk factors for such reactions, as well as to evaluate newly hypothesized syndromes or events identified from the assessment of VAERS data to clarify any potential relation between the reported adverse events and immunization. Certain adverse events are rarely seen in clinical trials, and clinicians see them too rarely to manage them in a standardized manner. CISA will fill this gap by assisting clinicians in the management of adverse events after immunization.
We also acknowledge Stephen Gordon, Pharm. In addition, the authors acknowledge Walter Orenstein, M. Section , ; codified at 42 USC Section aa Vaccine Adverse Reporting System: updated reportable events table. Monitoring system for adverse events following immunization. Vaccine ; Faich GA. Adverse-drug-reaction monitoring. New Engl J Med ; MMWR ; J Pediatr ; Varricchio FE. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol ; Bharti Infratel.
Market Watch. Pinterest Reddit. By Shailesh Menon. Banks and security agencies will have to keep plugging the holes every single day to keep black hats at bay. Kumar had never even travelled to Connaught Place where his card was used or misused. Miscreants managed to get his bank details using a Malaysian-make card reader and a hidden camera affixed to the ceiling of the rigged ATM, focused on the keypad to capture the PIN.
Card skimming — an old trick — is common in India, but on a waning curve as swindlers have moved on to more sophisticated technologies.
Daring raids on ATM switches and payment gateways, in rising numbers, have turned fraudsters of yore into new-age hackers. Industry experts estimate over 8, ATMs got infected by bugs last year — a good number on account of mishandling by third party handlers. ATMs get infected when third party service engineers use virus infected pen drives.
Eight dacoity cases were reported in , according to the National Crime Records Bureau, a couple of which included uprooting ATM machines and trucking them into the woods. There are unconfirmed reports of two south India based banks being infected, The Times of India stated recently. So only one bank with strong system or network may not really help.
Related Lower Forms of Life and Other Unconfirmed Reports
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