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Frédéric Mistral et Lou Pouèmo dóu Rose - Annales de Littératures Occitane (5)
Please check your email to confirm your subscription. Our Stores. Results for - jaccard. All the latest offers delivered right to your inbox! We Accept. Shipping Methods business days Minimum 10 business days. Our Locations. Mistral claims to have used no word unknown to the people or unintelligible to them, with the exception that he has used freely of the stock of learned words common to the whole Romance family of languages.
These words, too, he transforms more or less, keeping them in harmony with the forms peculiar to the langue d'oc. Phonetically, the dialect offers certain marked Pg 46 differences when contrasted with French. Here it may be said to occupy a sort of middle position between Italian and Spanish on the one hand, and French on the other; for in the former languages the accent is found in all parts of the word, in French practically only upon the final, and then it is generally weak, so that the notion of a stress is almost lost.
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The language, therefore, has a cadence that affects the ear differently from the French, and that resembles more that of the Italian or Spanish languages. The nasal vowels are again unlike those of the French language. The vowel affected by the following nasal consonant preserves its own quality of sound, and the consonant is pronounced; at the end of a word both m and n are pronounced as ng in the English word ring. This change of the nasal consonants Pg 47 into the ng sound whenever they become final occurs also in the dialects of northern Italy and northern Spain.
This pronunciation of the nasal vowels in French is, as is well known, an important factor in the famous "accent du Midi.
The oral vowels are in general like the French. A second element of the "accent du Midi" just referred to is the substitution of an open for a close o. The vowel sound of the word peur is not distinguished from the close sound in peu. Probably the most striking feature of the pronunciation is the unusual number of diphthongs and triphthongs, both ascending and descending. Each vowel preserves its proper sound, and the component vowels seem to be pronounced more slowly and separately than in Pg 48 many languages.
It is to be noted that u in a diphthong has the Italian sound, whereas when single it sounds as in French. The c has come to sound like s before e and i , as in French. Ch and j represent the sounds ts and dz respectively, and g before e and i has the latter sound. There is no aspirate h. The r is generally uvular. The s between vowels is voiced.
Only l , r , s , and n are pronounced as final consonants, l being extremely rare. Mistral has preserved or restored other final consonants in order to show the etymology, but they are silent except in liaison in the elevated style of reading. The language is richer in vowel variety than Italian or Spanish, and the proportion of vowel to consonant probably greater than in either.
Fortunately for the student, the spelling represents the pronunciation very faithfully. A final consonant preceded by another is mute; among single final consonants only l , m , n , r , s are sounded; otherwise all the letters written are pronounced.
The stressed syllable is indicated, when not normal, by the application of Pg 49 practically the same principles that determine the marking of the accent in Spanish. Variations begin as near as Avignon. Koschwitz' Grammar treats the language Pg 50 historically, and renders unnecessary here the presentation of more than its most striking peculiarities. Of these, one that evokes surprise upon first acquaintance with the dialect is the fact that final o marks the feminine of nouns, adjectives, and participles.
It is a close o , somewhat weakly and obscurely pronounced, as compared, for instance, with the final o in Italian. The noun has but one form for the singular and plural. The distinction of plural and singular depends upon the article, or upon the demonstrative or possessive adjective accompanying the noun.
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In liaison adjectives take s as a plural sign. A curious fact is the use of Pg 51 uni or unis , the plural of the indefinite article, as a sign of the dual number; and this is its exclusive use. The subject pronoun, when unemphatic, is not expressed, but understood from the termination of the verb.
The possessive adjective leur is represented by si ; and the reflective se is used for the first plural as well as for the third singular and third plural. The moods and tenses correspond exactly to those of the French, and the famous rule of the past participle is identical with the one that prevails in the sister language. The inversions of poetry may disguise this fact a little, but the lack of individuality in the sentence construction is obvious in prose.
Instances of the constructions just mentioned Pg 52 are the following. The relative object pronoun is often repeated as a personal pronoun, so that the verb has its object expressed twice.
The French continually offers redundancy of subject or complement, but not with the relative. Petrarco ignoro-ti? Petrarque ignore-t-il? This is the regular form of interrogative in the third person. It is, of course, entirely due to the influence of colloquial French. The influence of the French has been overwhelming, as is naturally to be expected.
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A great number of idioms, that seem to be pure gallicisms, are found, in spite of the deliberate effort, referred to above, to eliminate French forms. Vejan , voyons , is used as a sort of interjection, as in French. The partitive article is used precisely as in French. We meet the narrative infinitive with de. Only in the vocabulary does he feel himself in a strange atmosphere. It contains a great number of terms denoting objects known exclusively in Provence, for which there is no corresponding term in the sister speech.
Many plants have simple, familiar names, for which the Pg 54 French must substitute a name that is either only approximate, or learned and pedantic.
The great mass of the words are traceable to Latin etyma, as in all Romance dialects a large portion of Germanic words are found. Greek and Arabic words are comparatively numerous. Basque and Celtic have contributed various elements, and, as in French, there is a long list of words the origin of which is undetermined. The language shares with the other southern Romance languages a fondness for diminutives, augmentatives, and pejoratives, and is far richer than French in terminations of these classes.
Long suffixes abound, and the style becomes, in consequence, frequently high-sounding and exaggerated. One of the most evident sources of new words in the language of Mistral is in its suffixes. Most of these are common to the other Romance languages, and have merely undergone Pg 55 the phonetic changes that obtain in this form of speech. In many instances, however, they differ in meaning and in application from their corresponding forms in the sister languages, and a vast number of words are found the formation of which is peculiar to the language under consideration. These suffixes contribute largely to give the language its external appearance; and while a thorough and scientific study of them cannot be given here, enough will be presented to show some of the special developments of Mistral's language in this direction.
This suffix marks the infinitive of the first conjugation, and also the past participle.
As the first conjugation is a so-called "living" conjugation, it is the termination of many new verbs. This suffix is the equivalent of the French -age, and is a suffix of frequent occurrence in forming new words. A rather curious word is the adverb arrage, meaning at random, haphazard. It appears to represent a Latin adverb, erratice. Mourtau, mourtalo, mortal , gives the noun mourtalage, a massacre.
An interesting example of the use of this suffix is seen in the word eigagno, dew , formed from aigo, water , as though there had been a Latin word aquanea. This represents the Latin -ator one who. The corresponding feminine in Mistral's works has always the diminutive form -arello. The suffix sometimes represents the Latin -arium. A curious word is vejaire , meaning opinion, manner of seeing, as though there had been a Latin word videarium. It sometimes has the form jaire or chaire , through the loss of the first syllable. This suffix is common in the Romance languages.
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